Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the District. Dairy is the main supplementary source of income of the farmers in the district. Recently, floriculture, mushroom cultivation, medicinal plants, vanilla cultivation etc., are being taken up by some progressive farmers / women in the district.

Agricultural Farm

The occupational distribution of population based on Census 2011

Total Population 11,08,974
Total Workers 5,16,363
Main Workers 4,15,947
Main Cultivators 85,723
Main Agricultural labourers 1,12,391
Main Household Industries 4,933
Main Other workers 2,12,900
Marginal workers 1,00,416
Non-workers 5,92,611


Cardamom Plant  

This District has the agro-climatic conditions suitable for the cultivation of plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, cardamom, pepper, etc. The District acquired 2nd place in the state in agriculture produces. Small and marginal farmers are predominant in the district. However, in High land areas there are large holdings of plantations of tea, cardamom etc. owned by corporate bodies and private agencies.

This District, a creation of God's natural beauty, has Tea Gardens in the north while major hilly areas have Cardamom plantation. Hilly terrain, lack of proper irrigation facilities and accessibility, forest cover and topography in general make a major portion of the available land unsuitable for cultivation. Even then agriculture and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the people. The district is famous for production of spices like pepper and cardamom.

  Tea Leaves

Rubber, Coffee and Coconut are the other important crops in the district. More than 80 per cent of the cropped area is under perennial crops. The district is declared as a `Spices District` and a 'Technology Mission' has been set up for the development of spices.

Land Holding Pattern of the total area of 5,10,522 Ha., 2,17,005 Ha are under cultivation. Non food crops occupies about 90,000 Ha. The per capita availability of the land in Idukki district is 0.24 Ha.


Cropping Pattern


Agriculture is the most important segment of the economy and is still the largest source of employment in the district. Cardamom, Tea, Rubber and Coffee account for more than 50 % of the total cropped area and Pepper occupy about 25%. Paddy cultivation is comparatively less, confined to around 5000 Ha. The major crops grown and the area and production under these crops are furnished here under

Crop Area (Ha) Production (MT) Productivity(Kg/Ha)
Pepper 53231 19226 0.361 Pepper
Cardamom 42853 16445 0.383 Cardamom
Tea 40748 89047 2.185 Tea Plants
Rubber 36293 73782 2.032 Rubber Trees
Coffee 10890 6823 0.626 Coffee Tree
Cocoa 10500 6979 0.664 Cocoa Tree
Coconut 10167 55 0.005 Coconut Tree
Banana 7285 102330 14.046 Banana Tree
Tapioca 7027 172663 24.571 Tapioca
Arecanut 3408 4252 1.247 Arecanut Tree
Cool Season Vegetables 2100 30975 14.750
Rice (Virippu) 2082 4864 2.347
Ginger 2034 9710 4.772
Other Plantain 1981 33160 16.739
Nutmeg 1599 575 0.360
Rice (Mundakan) 1401 3548 2.532
Pineapple 1143 33970 29.720
Sugarcane 1100 32399 29.454
Pulses (Cowpea) 1081 8027 7.422
Amophophallus 670 5 0.007
Turmeric 566 3253 5.742
Bitter Gourd 452 5663 12.529
Cashew 394 264 0.672
Ragi 350 420 1.200
Coclocasia 294 5 0.017
Yam 163 5 0.033
Other Minor Tubers 123 75 0.610
Temperate Fruits 96 0 0
Snake Gourd 84 1255 14.855
Brinjal 81 20 0.248
Ladies Finger 75 292 3.869
Garlic 75 440 5.868
Green Chilly 71 1002 14.024
Amaranthus 67 839 12.363

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry activities are the major subsidiary occupations of the farming community. Extensive pasture, grazing lands and the favorable climate make the district suitable for rearing. Livestock wealth has great significance in the agricultural economy of the district.As per the latest survey, there is a total cattle population of 215432 animals in the district, of which 192311 are cows, 20863 are buffaloes and 2258 are sheeps.


There is additional population of 504076 of other animals. Animal health cover is provided by the Animal Husbandry Department through its veterinary institutions located at panchayat levels. Artificial insemination facilities are available throughout the district.

The Veterinary Institutions in the District

Name of the Institution Numbers Telephone
District Animal Husbandry Office, Thodupuzha 1 222894
District Veterinary Centre, Thodupuzha 1 229063
Veterinary Poly Clinic(Kattappana & Nedumkandam) 2  
Veterinary Hospitals 9  
Veterinary Dispensary 45  
Mobile Farm Aid Unit 2  
Mobile Veterinary Dispensary 1  
Intensive Cattle Development Program Office, Kattappana 1  
Regional Artificial Insemination Centre 4  
Rinder Pest Check Post 1  
Rinder Pest Vigilance Unit, Nudumkandam 1  
District Poultry Farm, Kolani 1  
Pig Farm, Kolani 1